Objective Even though roughened titanium (Ti) and Ti alloys have been clinically used as dental implant, they encourage bacterial adhesion, leading to failure of the initial stability. Here, the non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ) functionalized Ti and Ti alloy were investigated to promote cellular activities but inhibit the initial attachment of the adherent pioneer bacterium, Streptococcus sanguinis, without topographical changes. Methods After the produced radicals from NTAPPJ were characterized, bacterial adhesion to specimens was assessed by PrestoBlue assay and live-dead staining with or without the NTAPPJ functionalizing. After the surface was characterized using optical profilometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle analysis, the ions released from the specimens were investigated. In vitro initial cell attachment (4 h or 24 h) with adhesion images and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP, 14 days) measurements were performed using rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Results The initial bacterial adhesion to the Ti and Ti alloy was significantly inhibited after NTAPPJ functionalizing (p < 0.05) compared to those without NTAPPJ functionalizing. The bacterial adhesion-resistance effect was induced by carbon cleaning, which was dependent on the working gas used on the Ti specimens (nitrogen > ammonia and air, p < 0.05). The initial cell adhesion with well-developed vinculin localization and consequent ALP activity at 14 days to the NTAPPJ-functionalized specimens were superior to the non-treated specimens. Significance For the promising success of dental implants, NTAPPJ functionalizing is suggested as a novel surface modification technique; this technique can help ensure the success of integration between the dental implants and bone tissues with less concern of inflammation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Mechanics of Materials