Noncontact proximity vital sign sensor based on PLL for sensitivity enhancement

Yunseog Hong, Sang Gyu Kim, Byung Hyun Kim, Sung Jae Ha, Hee Jo Lee, Gi Ho Yun, Jong Gwan Yook

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, a noncontact proximity vital sign sensor, using a phase locked loop (PLL) incorporated with voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) built-in planar type circular resonator, is proposed to enhance sensitivity in severe environments. The planar type circular resonator acts as a series feedback element of the VCO as well as a near-field receiving antenna. The frequency deviation of the VCO related to the body proximity effect ranges from 0.07 MHz/mm to 1.8 MHz/mm (6.8 mV/mm to 205 mV/mm in sensitivity) up to a distance of 50 mm, while the amount of VCO drift is about 21 MHz in the condition of 60°C temperature range and discrete component tolerance of 5%. Total frequency variation occurs in the capture range of the PLL which is 60 MHz. Thus, its loop control voltage converts the amount of frequency deviation into a difference of direct current (DC) voltage, which is utilized to extract vital signs regardless of the ambient temperature. The experimental results reveal that the proposed sensor placed 50 mm away from a subject can reliably detect respiration and heartbeat signals without the ambiguity of harmonic signals caused by respiration signal at an operating frequency of 2.4 GHz.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6654290
Pages (from-to)584-593
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Aug

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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