Noninvasive studies may have potential to replace cystoscopy in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer follow-up

Jongsoo Lee, Ji Eun Heo, Sung Ku Kang, Kwang Suk Lee, Hyunho Han, Won Sik Jang, Young Deuk Choi

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Bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate which requires frequent follow-up. Cystoscopy is currently the gold standard for follow-up which is invasive and undesirable procedure for patients. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of noninvasive studies for follow-up of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. This retrospective study was done for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients with abnormal lesion at follow up cystoscopy, therefore those needed transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). Inclusion criteria was patients who had preoperative bladder magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 1 month to TUR-BT and urine cytology results. MRI, urine cytology, and surgical pathology results were analyzed for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, diagnostic odds ratio, and number needed to misdiagnose for the diagnostic performance of non-invasive studies. From total of 2,258 TUR-BT cases, 1,532 cases of primary TUR-BT and 481 cases which bladder MRI were not done was excluded. Finally, 245 cases of TUR-BT were included. Combined urine cytology and bladder MRI showed 96% sensitivity, 43% specificity, 89% positive and 67% negative predictive values, 87% accuracy, 16.2 diagnostic odds ratio, and 7.4 number needed to misdiagnose values. Among nine false-negative cases, three (1.2%) were missed by the radiologist, two (0.8%) had an empty bladder during magnetic resonance imaging, and three (1.2%) had gross hematuria which needed cystoscopy despite of bladder MRI or urine cytology result. Only one case (0.4%) was missed based on symptoms and noninvasive tests. However, none of the false-negative cases showed rapid extensive progression requiring radical or partial cystectomy. The combination of bladder MRI and urine cytology was comparable to cystoscopy for the follow-up of recurred lesions in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients for sensitivity, but not for specificity. However, it may reduce the need for cystoscopy and allowing patients to have choices for follow up diagnostic methods. Also, additional imaging tests to evaluate kidney, ureter and peri-vesical lesions can be reduced.

Original languageEnglish
Article number21677
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was funded by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (2022R1A2C3005586) and Foundation for Faculty Research Grant of Yonsei University College of Medicine (6-2020-0077).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


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