Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and M. abscessus complex (MABC) comprise the two most important human pathogen groups causing nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTM-LD). However, there are limited data regarding NTM-LD caused by mixed NTM infections. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in patients with NTM-LD caused by mixed infection with these two major NTM pathogen groups. Seventy-one consecutive patients who had been diagnosed with NTM-LD caused by mixed infection with MAC (M. avium or M. intracellulare) and MABC (M. abscessus or M. massiliense) between January 2010 and December 2015 were identified. Nearly all patients (96%) had the nodular bronchiectatic form of NTM-LD. Mixed infection with MAC and M. massiliense (n = 47, 66%) was more common than mixed infection with MAC and M. abscessus (n = 24, 34%), and among the 43 (61%) patients who were treated for NTM-LD for more than 12 months, sputum culture conversion rates were significantly lower in patients infected with MAC and M. abscessus (25% [3/12]) than in patients infected with MAC and M. massiliense (61% [19/31, P = 0.033]). Additionally, M. massiliense and M. abscessus showed marked differences in clarithromycin susceptibility (90% versus 6%, P < 0.001). Of the 23 patients who successfully completed treatment, 11 (48%) redeveloped NTM lung disease, with mycobacterial genotyping results indicating that the majority of cases were due to reinfection. Precise identification of etiologic NTM organisms could help predict treatment outcomes in patients with NTM-LD due to mixed infections.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
C.L.D. has received grants from Insmed, Inc., that were not associated with the submitted work. W.-J.K. has received a consultation fee from Insmed, Inc., for an Insmed Advisory Board Meeting that was not associated with the submitted work. Otherwise, we have no conflicts of interest to declare. This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning (NRF-2015R1A2A1A01003959). The sponsor had no role in the design of the study, the collection and analysis of the data, or the preparation of the manuscript.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases