Botulinum neurotoxin injection surrounding the nose area is frequently used in aesthetic settings. However, there is a shortage of thorough anatomical understanding that makes it difficult to treat wrinkles in the nose area. In this study, the anatomical aspects concerning the injection of botulinum neurotoxin into the nasalis, procerus, and levator labii superioris alaeque muscles are assessed. In addition, the present knowledge on localizing the botulinum neurotoxin injection point from a newer anatomy study is assessed. It was observed that, for the line-associated muscles in the nose region, the injection point may be more precisely defined. The optimal injection sites are the nasalis, procerus, and levator labii superioris alaeque muscles, and the injection technique is advised. We advise the best possible injection sites in association with anatomical standards for commonly injected muscles to increase efficiency in the nose region by removing the wrinkles. Similarly, these suggestions support a more precise procedure.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (NRF-2020R1A2B5B0100223811).
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis