Calcium silicate-based cements (CSCs) are commonly used for endodontic procedures; however, their antibacterial effects are limited. The objective of this study was to develop a 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC)-incorporated CSC with improved antibacterial properties, while maintaining the original advantageous features of CSC. MPC was incorporated into a commercial CSC (Endocem MTA) at 0 wt% (control), 1.5%, 3.0 wt%, 5.0 wt%, 7.5 wt%, and 10 wt%. The setting time, compressive strength, water sorption, and glycerol contact angle were measured. Protein absorption was measured and bacterial adhesion on the surface was evaluated using Enterococcus faecalis. The bactericidal effect was examined by the disc diffusion test. Mineralization ability was assessed based on calcium ion deposition, as assessed by alizarin red staining, after immersion into Hank’s balanced salt solution for 7 days. High concentrations of MPC in CSC (7.5 wt% and 10 wt%) increased the setting time, reduced compressive strength, and reduced wettability. MPC (3 wt%) had greater protein repellent and anti-biofouling effects than those of control and test materials (P < 0.001). However, no bactericidal effect was observed for any control or test materials. There was greater calcium ion deposition on the surface of MPC-supplemented CSC than on the control (P < 0.001). The addition of 3 wt% MPC polymer to CSC confers protein-repellent properties and reduced bacterial attachment, with the potential for improved mineralization.
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© 2019 Kwon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)