Retinoic acid (RA)-induced cleft palate results from both extrinsic obstructions by the tongue and internal factors within the palatal shelves. Our previous study showed that the spatiotemporal expression of Rac1 regulates the fibronectin (FN) arrangement through cell density alterations that play an important role in palate development. In this study, we investigate the involvement of the Rac1 regulation of the FN arrangement in RA-induced cleft palate. Our results demonstrate that RA-induced intrinsic alterations in palatal shelves, including a delayed progress of cell condensation, delay palate development, even after the removal of the tongue. Further analysis shows that RA treatment diminishes the region-distinctive expression of Rac1 within the palatal shelves, which reversely alters the fibrillar arrangement of FN. Furthermore, RA treatment disrupts the formation of lamellipodia, which are indicative structures of cell migration that are regulated by Rac1. These results suggest that the Rac1 regulation of the FN arrangement is involved in RA-induced cleft palate through the regulation of cell migration, which delays the progress of cell condensation and subsequently influences the FN arrangement, inducing a delay in palate development. Our study provides new insights into the RA-induced impairment of palatal shelf elevation based on cell migration dynamics.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (HI14C3266). This research was supported by a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (HI14C1817). This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2014R1A2A1A11050764). This research was supported by the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (No. 2012M3A9B4028738).
© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Cell Biology