Recent studies highlight the existence of a nuclear lipid metabolism related to cellular proliferation. However, the importance of nuclear phosphatidylcholine (PC) metabolism is poorly understood. Therefore, we were interested in nuclear PC as a source of second messengers and, particularly, nuclear localization of PC-specific phospholipase D (PLD). In the present study we have identified the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of PLD1 whose mutation abolished its nuclear import. Recently, we reported that caspase-mediated cleavage of PLD1 generates the N-terminal fragment (NF-PLD1) and C-terminal fragment (CF-PLD1). Here we show that CF-PLD1 but not NF-PLD1, is exclusively imported into the nucleus via its functional NLS, whereas only some portions of intact PLD1 were localized into the nucleus. The NLS of intact PLD1 or CF-PLD1 is required for interaction with importin-β, which is known to mediate nuclear import. The amount of intact PLD1 or CF-PLD1 translocated into nucleus is correlated with its binding affinity with importin-β. Ultimately, nuclear localization of intact PLD1 but not CF-PLD1 mediates the activation of nuclear protein kinase Cα and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways. Taken together, we propose that nuclear localization of PLD1 via the NLS and its interaction with importin-β may provide new insights on the functional role of nuclear PLD1 signaling.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology