Vitamin D (VitD) has pleiotropic effects. VitD deficiency is closely involved with obesity and may contribute to the development of lung fibrosis and aggravation of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We evaluated the causal relationship between VitD deficiency and the lung pathologies associated with obesity. In vivo effects of VitD supplementation were analyzed using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice and TGF-b1 (transforming growth factor-b1) triple transgenic mice. Effects of VitD supplementation were also evaluated in both BEAS-2B and primary lung cells from the transgenic mice. Obese mice had decreased 25-OH VitD and VitD receptor expressions with increases of insulin resistance, renin and angiotensin-2 system (RAS) activity, and leptin. In addition, lung pathologies such as a modest increase in macrophages, enhanced TGF-b1, IL-1b, and IL-6 expression, lung fibrosis, and AHR were found. VitD supplementation to HFD-induced obese mice recovered these findings. TGF-b1–overexpressing transgenic mice enhanced macrophages in BAL fluid, lung expression of RAS, epithelial–mesenchymal transition markers, AHR, and lung fibrosis. VitD supplementation also attenuated these findings in addition to the attenuation of the expressions of TGF-b1, and phosphorylated Smad-2/3 in lung. Supplementing in vitro–stimulated BEAS-2B and primary lung cells with VitD inhibited TGF-b1 expression, supporting the suppressive effect of VitD for TGF-b1 expression. These results suggest that obesity leads to VitD deficiency and worsens insulin resistance while enhancing the expression of leptin, RAS, TGF-b1, and proinflammatory cytokines. These changes may contribute to the development of lung fibrosis and AHR. VitD supplementation rescues these changes and may have therapeutic potential for asthma with obesity.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology|
|Publication status||Published - 2021 Mar|
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2021 by the American Thoracic Society.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cell Biology