For ultra-low-power Internet of Things (IoT) devices powered by batteries or energy harvesting, a nonvolatile flip-flop (NV-FF) operating in the near-threshold voltage (NTV) region has been widely studied to save both standby and active power. However, in the NTV region, the NV-FF suffers from restore yield and performance degradation due to the increase in process variation combined with the decrease in supply voltage. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the previous NV-FFs according to supply voltage scaling and suggests the design directions for implementing the NV-FF that can operate with compact area and high performance even in the NTV region. Through the comparative analysis, a novel offset-cancellation sensing-circuit (OCSC)-based NV-FF, which adopts a separate latch and sensing circuit structure and an offset-cancellation technique, is proposed. The Monte Carlo HSPICE simulation results using industry-compatible 65-nm model parameters show that the proposed NV-FF satisfies a target restore yield with 32% area, 88% speed, and 82% energy savings in comparison with a representative NV-FF of the merged latch and sensing circuit structure.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers|
|Publication status||Published - 2019 Aug|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering