On droop control of energy-constrained battery energy storage systems for grid frequency regulation

Jae Woong Shim, Gregor Verbic, Heejin Kim, Kyeon Hur

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes the droop control algorithm for multiple distributed Battery Energy Storage Systems (ESS) with their state of charge (SOC) feedback, shown to be effective in providing grid services while managing the SOC of the ESS. By extending the mathematical links between the ESS SOC and power dynamics for frequency regulation, this paper elaborates on how the proposed scheme integrates multiple ESS into the load frequency control and the ESS effectively augments the functional roles of the incumbent generators. The control performance for a group of ESS in grid operations is evaluated and characterized by using metrics such as the cut-off frequency and settling time, and the initial and final value theorems. Theoretical insights and practical issues are discussed. Various numerical examples and case studies for a simplified Australian network with high penetration of renewables demonstrate the validity and efficacy of the proposed method.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8901200
Pages (from-to)166353-166364
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by the Korea Electric Power Corporation under Grant R17XA05-4, and in part by the ‘‘Human Resources Program in Energy Technology’’ of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Republic of Korea, under Grant 20194030202420.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)


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