Under normal sliding conditions encountered in engineering applications, the frictional force is generated by plowing of surfaces by wear particles, asperity deformation and adhesion. Of these three basic contributing factors, the plowing of the surfaces by wear particles is found to be the most important in most sliding situations. Careful experiments are attempted to eliminate the mechanical effects of friction in order to measure only the inherent friction due to adhesive forces between two sliding surfaces. However, it has been found that it is extremely difficult to eliminate microstructural changes caused by mechanical interactions at the microscopic scale. Experimental results obtained using extremely smooth silicon and sapphire surfaces are described to support the claim that permanent damages are present in most friction tests, which may ultimately contribute to the formation of wear debris, particles, and sheets. A plausible model for a microscopic friction and wear process is presented.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The support of this work by Dr. J. Larsen-Basse of the National Science Foundation under GrantM SM-8815191 is greatly appreciated.T he first author would like to thank Dr. N. Saka for many fruitful discussions. We are also grateful to Dr. I. Stowers of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for providing some of the samples.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry