Based on performance-based seismic engineering, this paper proposes an optimal seismic retrofit model for steel moment resisting frames (SMRFs) to generate a retrofit scheme at minimal cost. To satisfy the acceptance criteria for the Basic Safety Objective (BSO) specified in FEMA 356, the minimum number of upgraded connections and their locations in an SMRF with brittle connections are determined by evolutionary computation. The performance of the proposed optimal retrofitting model is evaluated on the basis of the energy dissipation capacities, peak roof drift ratios, and maximum interstory drift ratios of structures before and after retrofitting. In addition, a retrofit efficiency index, which is defined as the ratio of the increment in seismic performance to the required retrofitting cost, is proposed to examine the efficiencies of the retrofit schemes derived from the model. The optimal seismic retrofit model is applied to the SAC benchmark examples for threestory and nine-story SMRFs with brittle connections. Using the retrofit efficiency index proposed in this study, the optimal retrofit schemes obtained from the model are found to be efficient for both examples in terms of energy dissipation capacity, roof drift ratio, and maximum inter-story drift ratio.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Building and Construction
- Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
- Mechanical Engineering