The optimal use of batteries in drones is a critical issue for achieving both reliable operation and maximum flight time. The key is to acquire accurate information about the state of charge (SoC) of the battery in runtime. Drones typically employ series-connected lithium-ion polymer (Li-Po) battery cells, whose SoC is affected by many environmental factors as well as flight patterns. In this article, we propose a scheme, called Optrone, which maximizes the flight time of a drone while safely using the battery. Understanding the implications of the factors affecting the SoC of the drone's battery pack, we propose a three-level SoC, which is a metric for representing the SoC of a battery in runtime. We also provide various operating policies to users to improve the safety and efficiency of operating the drone. We implemented the prototype hardware and software for Optrone, and validated its operation in controlled and real environments. The experimental results in a controlled environment showed that the proposed three-level SoC poses less than 3% error and the operating policies achieved a flight time gain of 19.4%, while guaranteeing battery safety. We also observed a flight time gain of about 10% in real outdoor experiments, where the user rightly adheres to the advised Optrone policy.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems|
|Publication status||Published - 2020 Nov|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received April 17, 2020; revised June 17, 2020; accepted July 6, 2020. Date of publication October 2, 2020; date of current version October 27, 2020. This work was supported in part by the Next-Generation Information Computing Development Program funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT under Grant NRF-2017M3C4A7083677, in part by the National Research Foundation of Korea under Grant NRF-2019R1A2C2004619, and in part by the Institute for Information and Communications Technology Promotion grant funded by the Korea Government [MSIT, Development of High-Assurance (≥EAL6) Secure Microkernel] under Grant 2018-0-00532. This article was presented in the International Conference on Embedded Software 2020 and appears as part of the ESWEEK-TCAD special issue. (Corresponding author: Hojung Cha.) The authors are with the Department of Computer Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, South Korea (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TCAD.2020.3012790
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering