It is well-known that microbiota dysbiosis is closely associated with numerous diseases in the human body. The oral cavity and gut are the two largest microbial habitats, playing a major role in microbiome-associated diseases. Even though the oral cavity and gut are continuous regions connected through the gastrointestinal tract, the oral and gut microbiome profiles are well-segregated due to the oral–gut barrier. However, the oral microbiota can translocate to the intestinal mucosa in conditions of the oral–gut barrier dysfunction. Inversely, the gut-to-oral microbial transmission occurs as well in inter-and intrapersonal manners. Recently, it has been reported that oral and gut microbiomes interdependently regulate physiological functions and pathological processes. Oral-to-gut and gut-to-oral microbial transmissions can shape and/or reshape the microbial ecosystem in both habitats, eventually modulating pathogenesis of disease. However, the oral–gut microbial interaction in pathogenesis has been underappreciated to date. Here, we will highlight the oral– gut microbiome crosstalk and its implications in the pathogenesis of the gastrointestinal disease and cancer. Better understanding the role of the oral–gut microbiome axis in pathogenesis will be advantageous for precise diagnosis/prognosis and effective treatment.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grants funded by the Korean Government (grant numbers NRF-2020R1C1C1003338 and NRF-2016R1A5A20-08630 to N.Y.S.).
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research