Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen

S. Sallis, K. T. Butler, N. F. Quackenbush, D. S. Williams, M. Junda, D. A. Fischer, J. C. Woicik, N. J. Podraza, B. E. White, Aron Walsh, L. F J Piper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number232108
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Volume104
Issue number23
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jun 9

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gallium oxides
zinc oxides
indium
oxygen
coordination number
photoelectron spectroscopy
disorders
annealing
oxides
metals
x rays

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Sallis, S., Butler, K. T., Quackenbush, N. F., Williams, D. S., Junda, M., Fischer, D. A., ... Piper, L. F. J. (2014). Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen. Applied Physics Letters, 104(23), [232108]. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4883257
Sallis, S. ; Butler, K. T. ; Quackenbush, N. F. ; Williams, D. S. ; Junda, M. ; Fischer, D. A. ; Woicik, J. C. ; Podraza, N. J. ; White, B. E. ; Walsh, Aron ; Piper, L. F J. / Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide : Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen. In: Applied Physics Letters. 2014 ; Vol. 104, No. 23.
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Sallis, S, Butler, KT, Quackenbush, NF, Williams, DS, Junda, M, Fischer, DA, Woicik, JC, Podraza, NJ, White, BE, Walsh, A & Piper, LFJ 2014, 'Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen', Applied Physics Letters, vol. 104, no. 23, 232108. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4883257

Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide : Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen. / Sallis, S.; Butler, K. T.; Quackenbush, N. F.; Williams, D. S.; Junda, M.; Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C.; Podraza, N. J.; White, B. E.; Walsh, Aron; Piper, L. F J.

In: Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 104, No. 23, 232108, 09.06.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T2 - Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen

AU - Sallis, S.

AU - Butler, K. T.

AU - Quackenbush, N. F.

AU - Williams, D. S.

AU - Junda, M.

AU - Fischer, D. A.

AU - Woicik, J. C.

AU - Podraza, N. J.

AU - White, B. E.

AU - Walsh, Aron

AU - Piper, L. F J

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AB - The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

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