Objectives: To compare perioperative trifecta achievement and long-term oncological and functional outcomes between patients with renal tumours of low [Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical (PADUA) score 6–7], intermediate (PADUA score 8–9) and high (PADUA score ≥10) complexity undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN), and to determine predictors for trifecta achievement. Patients and Methods: Data were retrospectively analysed from 295 patients, who underwent RAPN, between 2006 and 2015, at a high-volume tertiary centre. Trifecta achievement was the primary outcome measurement. The perioperative parameters and long-term oncological and functional outcomes were the secondary outcome measures. Groups were compared using the Kruskal–Wallis H test or chi-square test. Univariable and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were used to determine the most important determinant variables associated with trifecta accomplishment. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to estimate overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and cancer-free survival (CFS). Results: Of the 295 patients, 121 (41%) had a PADUA score of ≥10. Patients in the high-complexity PADUA group had larger tumours (P ≤ 0.001), higher clinical stages ≥T1b (P < 0.001), an increased risk of malignancy (P = 0.02), longer warm ischaemia time (P = 0.0030), and higher estimated blood loss (P = 0.001) compared with those in the intermediate- and low-complexity groups. Seven of eight patients who were converted to radical nephrectomy had high-complexity tumours (P = 0.02). Trifecta achievement was less in the high-complexity PADUA group (P < 0.001). Renal functional outcomes did not differ among the groups at follow-up (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups for OS (P = 0.314), CSS (P = 0.228) and CFS (P = 0.532). In multivariable analysis, the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, operative time and tumour size were independent predictors of trifecta achievement (P = 0.001, P = 0.03, and P = 0.006, respectively). Conclusion: High-complexity PADUA tumours are associated with a lower rate of trifecta achievement; however, long-term oncological and functional outcomes seem to be equivalent among high-, intermediate-, and low-complexity tumours. Despite the perioperative outcomes; high-complexity tumours can be handled successfully via the robotic approach and the improved long-term oncological and functional outcomes might be considered useful for patients counselling.
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