Outcomes of intracranial non-germinomatous germ cell tumors: a retrospective Asian multinational study on treatment strategies and prognostic factors

Kyung Taek Hong, Jung Woo Han, Hiroshi Fuji, Hwa Kyung Byun, Kyung Nam Koh, Ru Xin Wong, Hsin Lun Lee, Hong In Yoon, Joo Ho Lee, Ji Hoon Phi, Seung Ki Kim, Dong Seok Kim, Chuhl Joo Lyu, Jung Yoon Choi, Hyoung Jin Kang, Yi Wei Chen, Yi Yen Lee, Ho Joon Im, Young Shin Ra, Seung Do AhnSharon Yin Yee Low, Wen Shen Looi, Hyeon Jin Park, Yang Gun Suh, Chang Ok Suh, Kyu Chang Wang, Enrica Ee Kar Tan, Tai Tong Wong, Joo Young Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs) are rare pediatric conditions. This multicenter study using Asian multinational patient data investigated treatment outcomes and prognostic factors for NGGCTs. Methods: Medical records of 251 patients with NGGCTs treated from 1995 to 2015 were retrospectively analyzed from participating centers in Asian countries (Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Japan). Results: The median follow up was 8.5 years (95% CI 7.8–9.9). In the total cohort, 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 78.2% and 85.4%, respectively. In 17.9% of the patients, diagnosis was determined by tumor markers alone (alpha-fetoprotein ≥ 10 ng/mL (Korea) or > 25 ng/mL (Taiwan and Singapore), and/or β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) ≥ 50 mIU/mL). Patients with immature teratomas and mature teratomas comprised 12.0% and 8.4%, respectively. The 5-year EFS rate was higher in patients with histologically confirmed germinoma with elevated β-hCG (n = 28) than those in patients with malignant NGGCTs (n = 127). Among malignant NGGCTs, patients with choriocarcinoma showed the highest 5-year OS of 87.6%, while yolk sac tumors showed the lowest OS (68.8%). For malignant NGGCT subgroups, an increase in serum β-hCG levels by 100 mIU/mL was identified as a significant prognostic factor associated with the EFS and OS. Conclusion: Our result shows excellent survival outcomes of overall CNS NGGCT. However, treatment outcome varied widely across the histopathologic subgroup of NGGCT. Hence, this study suggests the necessity for accurate diagnosis by surgical biopsy and further optimization of diagnosis and treatment according to the histopathology of NGGCTs. Future clinical trials should be designed for individualized treatments for different NGGCTs subsets.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-53
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Neuro-Oncology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Oct

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by National Cancer Center, Korea (Grant No. 2110352).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cancer Research


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