Mercury (Hg) speciation variations in flue gas at the inlet and outlet of various air pollution control devices (APCDs) were studied, including a selective catalytic reactor (SCR), a cold side-electrostatic precipitator (CS-ESP), a wet flue gas desulfurization system (wet FGD) and the stack of bituminous coal-fired power plants. Effects of flue gas temperature, flow rate and selected flue gas components on Hg oxidation were also studied. The association of selected parameters on Hg 0 oxidation and removal by the APCDs and the mass distribution of Hg within the system were estimated. Sampling and analysis were carried out using the Ontario Hydro Method. Solid and liquid samples were analyzed according to US EPA methods 7470A and 7471A, respectively. Hg concentration in the flue gas at the outlet boiler and stack ranged from 4.70 to 27.3 μg/Sm 3 and 3.1 to 0.48 μg/Sm 3, respectively. The overall Hg removal efficiency in the APCDs ranged from 43.8% to 94.9%, and oxidized Hg in flue gas decreased with increasing temperature. With an increase in HCl concentration, a decrease in flue gas flow rate and decreasing temperature, oxidation of elemental Hg in combustion flue gas increased. The effects of SO x and NO x concentrations on elemental Hg oxidation in flue gas were rather complex. Among the parameters studied, the most significant parameters affecting overall Hg removal in the APCDs, in order, were removal in the ESP, oxidation in the SCR system and removal in the wet FGD. Experimental data and statistical analysis confirmed the promotion of a co-beneficial control of Hg in the SCR, CS-ESP and wet FGD configurations. The mass distribution showed that 43.0% of Hg was collected in ESP fly ash, 49.4% in wet FGD by-products and effluents, 3.9% of Hg was removed in boiler bottom ash and 3.7% was released into the atmosphere. In the SCR + CS-ESP + wet FGD configuration, a major portion of Hg was distributed into the by-products and removed by the APCDs compared to the lower removal levels seen in the CS-ESP + wet FGD configuration.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (KIEST) and was partially supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment under a human resource development project for energy from waste and recycling. Dr. Deepak Pudasainee is supported by Yonsei University foreign post-doctorate fellowship-2010. The part of this paper was presented at MEC 7 – Mercury Emissions from Coal 7th International Experts Workshop. Glasgow, Scotland, UK. 16th–18th June 2010.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Fuel Technology
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Organic Chemistry