Ozone production efficiency (OPE) of ship plume was first evaluated in this study, based on ship-plume photochemical/dynamic model simulations and the ship-plume composition data measured during the ITCT 2K2 (Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation 2002) aircraft campaign. The averaged instantaneous OPEs (OPEi) estimated via the ship-plume photochemical/dynamic modeling for the ITCT 2K2 ship-plume ranged between 4.61 and 18.92, showing that the values vary with the extent of chemical evolution (or chemical stage) of the ship plume and the stability classes of the marine boundary layer (MBL). Together with OPEi, the equivalent OPEs (OPEe) for the entire ITCT 2K2 ship-plume were also estimated. The OPEe values varied between 9.73 (for the stable MBL) and 12.73 (for the moderately stable MBL), which agreed well with the OPEe of 12.85 estimated based on the ITCT 2K2 ship-plume observations. It was also found that both the model-simulated and observation-based OPEe inside the ship-plume were 0.29-0.38 times smaller than the OPEe calculated/measured outside the ITCT 2K2 ship-plume. Such low OPEs insides the ship plume were due to the high levels of NO and non-liner ship-plume photochemistry. Possible implications of this ship-plume OPE study in the global chemistry-transport modeling are also discussed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was funded by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant from the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning ( 2012R1A1A2041481 ), by the GEMS program of the Korean Ministry of Environment, as part of the Eco Innovation Program of KEITI ( 2012000160004 ), and by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program (KMIPA2015-5010). We obtained all the ITCT 2K2 airborne data sets from the official NOAA data archive at http://esrl.noaa.gov/csd/tropchem/2002ITCT/P3/DataDownload/index.php .
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis