Purpose: Pain and anxiety are understudied despite their importance to the general medical condition. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of pain and anxiety and their relationship to the doses of opioids and anxiolytics administered in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods: The subjects included 1349 conscious, critically ill patients admitted to an ICU. Psychiatrists evaluated the patients daily for pain and anxiety. Data regarding the doses of opioids and benzodiazepines administered were gathered. Linear mixed model was used for analysis. Results: The pain and anxiety experienced by patients in the ICU were significantly correlated. Pain had significant main effects on the dose of opioids administered. No significant effects of anxiety on the daily dose of anxiolytics or opioids given were detected. Conclusions: Due to their closely linked relationship, pain and anxiety, can affect one another, and one can influence the other to appear more severe. In addition, anxiety can be underestimated in ICU patients. The present study suggests the need for precise evaluation and a comprehensive approach to the management of pain and anxiety. In addition, this study implies that management of anxiety may affect pain reduction, given the close correlation between the two.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This project was supported, in part, by a grant from the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea ( HI16C0132 ). We would like to acknowledge Dr. Jeong-Hyun Sohn, and Dr. Hyung –Jun Yoon for their support in the design of the study and the data collection. We also thank the Gangnam Severance Hospital medical record team and the medical information team for extracting data from the electronic medical records. None of the contributors received compensation for their work.
This project was supported, in part, by a grant from the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (HI16C0132).
© 2018 Elsevier Inc.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine