Pathologic alterations in podocytes lead to failure of an essential component of the glomerular filtration barrier and proteinuria in chronic kidney diseases. Elevated levels of saturated free fatty acid (FFA) are harmful to various tissues, implemented in the progression of diabetes and its complications such as proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of palmitate cytotoxicity in cultured mouse podocytes. Incubation with palmitate dose-dependently increased cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, depolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential, impaired ATP synthesis and elicited apoptotic cell death. Palmitate not only evoked mitochondrial fragmentation but also caused marked dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Consistently, palmitate upregulated ER stress proteins, oligomerized stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in the subplasmalemmal ER membrane, abolished the cyclopiazonic acid-induced cytosolic Ca2+ increase due to depletion of luminal ER Ca2+. Palmitate-induced ER Ca2+ depletion and cytotoxicity were blocked by a selective inhibitor of the fatty-acid transporter FAT/CD36. Loss of the ER Ca2+ pool induced by palmitate was reverted by the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor edelfosine. Palmitate-dependent activation of PLC was further demonstrated by following cytosolic translocation of the pleckstrin homology domain of PLC in palmitate-treated podocytes. An inhibitor of diacylglycerol (DAG) kinase, which elevates cytosolic DAG, strongly promoted ER Ca2+ depletion by low-dose palmitate. GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, partially prevented palmitateinduced ER Ca2+ loss. Remarkably, the mitochondrial antioxidant mitoTEMPO inhibited palmitate-induced PLC activation, ER Ca2+ depletion and cytotoxicity. Palmitate elicited cytoskeletal changes in podocytes and increased albumin permeability, which was also blocked by mitoTEMPO. These data suggest that oxidative stress caused by saturated FFA leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and ER Ca2+ depletion through FAT/CD36 and PLC signaling, possibly contributing to podocyte injury.
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Acknowledgements. We are grateful to Professor Hoon Young Choi (Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea), Professor Jochen Reiser (Rush University, Chicago, IL, USA), Professor Nicolas Demaurex (University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland), Professor Dong Min Shin (School of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea) and Professor Yup Kang (School of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea) for providing podocytes and plasmids. This work was supported by the grant from the National Research Foundation (NRF-2013R1A1A4A01010780) and Yonsei University Future-leading Research Initiative of 2014 (2014-22-0127).
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology
- Cancer Research