Caveolin-1 was initially identified as a phosphoprotein in Rous sarcoma virus-transformed cells. Previous studies have shown that caveolin-1 is phosphorylated on tyrosine 14 by c-Src and that lipid modification of c-Src is required for this phosphorylation event to occur in vivo. Phosphocaveolin-1 (Tyr(P)-14) localizes within caveolae near focal adhesions and, through its interaction with Grb7, augments anchorage-independent growth and epidermal growth factor-stimulated cell migration. However, the cellular factors that govern the coupling of caveolin-1 to the c-Src tyrosine kinase remain largely unknown. Here, we show that palmitoylation of caveolin-1 at a single site (Cys-156) is required for coupling caveolin-1 to the c-Src tyrosine kinase. Furthermore, upon evaluating a battery of nonreceptor and receptor tyrosine kinases, we demonstrate that the tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-1 by c-Src is a highly selective event. We show that Src-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-1 can be inhibited or uncoupled by targeting dually acylated proteins (namely carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CD36, and the NH 2-terminal domain of Gαi1) to the exoplasmic, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic regions of the caveolae membrane, respectively. Conversely, when these proteins are not properly targeted or lipid-modified, the ability of c-Src to phosphorylate caveolin-1 remains unaffected. In addition, when purified caveolae preparations are preincubated with a myristoylated peptide derived from the extreme N terminus of c-Src, the tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-1 is abrogated; the same peptide lacking myristoylation has no inhibitory activity. However, an analogous myristoylated peptide derived from c-Yes also has no inhibitory activity. Thus, the inhibitory effects of the myristoylated c-Src peptide are both myristoylation-dependent and sequence-specific. Finally, we investigated whether phosphocaveolin-1 (Tyr(P)-14) interacts with the Src homology 2 and/or phosphotyrosine binding domains of Grb7, the only characterized downstream mediator of its function. Taken together, our data identify a series of novel lipid-lipid-based interactions as important regulatory factors for coupling caveolin-1 to the c-Src tyrosine kinase in vivo.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology