The present study aimed to investigate gene expression changes related to cell cycle activation in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to further evaluate the difference between the upper and lower limbs of SCI patients. Fibroblasts were obtained from the upper and lower limbs of SCI patients and healthy subjects. To investigate gene expression profiling in the fibroblasts from SCI patients compared to the healthy subjects, RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis was performed. To validate the parasympathetic effects on cell cycle activation, fibroblasts from upper or lower limbs of SCI patients were treated with the anticholinergic agents tiotropium or acetylcholine, and quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot were conducted. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in the upper limbs of SCI patients compared with the lower limbs of SCI patients and healthy subjects. The pathway and genes involved in cell cycle were identified by RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis. Expression of cell-cycle-related genes CCNB1, CCNB2, PLK1, BUB1, and CDC20 were significantly higher in the upper limbs of SCI patients compared with the lower limbs of SCI patients and healthy subjects. When the fibroblasts were treated with tiotropium the upper limbs and acetylcholine in the lower limbs, the expression of cell-cycle-related genes and cell proliferation were significantly modulated. This study provided the insight that cell proliferation and cell cycle activation were observed to be significantly increased in the upper limbs of SCI patients via the parasympathetic effect.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the National Research Foundation (NRF-2017R1C1B1005407, NRF-2018R1A6A3A01013415, NRF-2018R1D1A1B07048239, NRF-2018M3A9G1082609, and NRF-2019R1I1A1A01041292); the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (HI16C1012); and the “Dongwha” Faculty Research Assistance Program of Yonsei University College of Medicine (6-2017-0042).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry