Parent and peer social norms and youth's post-secondary attitudes: A latent class analysis

Kristen P. Kremer, Michael G. Vaughn, Travis M. Loux

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The present study explores whether college-going norms of parents and peers are intertwined or distinct in their contributions to college-going attitudes. Latent class analysis identified latent groups based on youth's social norms from parents and friends. Data was used from the High School Longitudinal Study (HSLS:09), a nationally representative and longitudinal study of ninth grade American students (N = 10,663). Four classes were identified: universal college norms (53.57%, N = 5712), which included youth with high support from both parents and friends; parent college norms (12.71%, N = 1355), wherein youth's parents demonstrated high support while friends displayed low school engagement; friend college norms (27.53%, N = 2935), in which youth had highly engaged peers but limited parental support; and limited college norms (6.20%, N = 661), comprised of youth whose parents and friends displayed limited academic engagement. Findings indicate that parents and friends play separate roles in the development of college-going attitudes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)411-417
Number of pages7
JournalChildren and Youth Services Review
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Oct

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by two grants from the Institute of Education Sciences , U.S. Department of Education ( R3214A100022 , R305F100013 , and R305A150058 ) and support from The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk . The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the Institute of Education Sciences or the U.S. Department of Education.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science


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