Paroxysmal choreodystonic disorders or paroxysmal dyskinesias are a heterogeneous group of movement disorders characterized by recurrent attacks of abnormal involuntary movements. They are classified into four categories according to the precipitant, duration of attacks, and etiology: (1) paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), in which attacks are brief and induced by sudden voluntary movements; (2) paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD), in which attacks occur spontaneously; (3) paroxysmal exertion-induced dyskinesia (PED), in which attacks are brought on by prolonged exercise; and (4) paroxysmal hypnogenic dyskinesia (PHD), in which attacks occur during sleep. Among them, PHD is currently known to be a form of mesial frontal-lobe epilepsy, and has been given the term " autosomal-dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy" (ANDFLE) in some familiar cases with an autosomal-dominant inheritance. The clinical, etiological and pathophysiological features of PKD, PNKD, and PED are reviewed.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Handbook of Clinical Neurology|
|Publication status||Published - 2011|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology