Invading pathogens are recognized by diverse germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) which are distributed in three different cellular compartments: extracellular, membrane, and cytoplasmic. In mammals, the major extracellular PRRs such as complements may first encounter the invading pathogens and opsonize them for clearance by phagocytosis which is mediated by membrane-associated phagocytic receptors including complement receptors. The major membrane-associated PRRs, Toll-like receptors, recognize diverse pathogens and generate inflammatory signals to coordinate innate immune responses and shape adaptive immune responses. Furthemore, certain membrane-associated PRRs such as Dectin-1 can mediate phagocytosis and also induce inflammatory response. When these more forefront detection systems are avoided by the pathogens, cytoplasmic PRRs may play major roles. Cytoplasmic caspase-recruiting domain (CARD) helicases such as retinoic acid-inducible protein I (RIG-I)/melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5), mediate antiviral immunity by inducing the production of type I interferons. Certain members of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors such as NALP3 present in the cytosol form inflammasomes to induce inflammatory responses upon ligand recognition. Thus, diverse families of PRRs coordinately mediate immune responses against diverse types of pathogens.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Molecules and cells|
|Publication status||Published - 2007 Feb|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology