An electrochemically active nanowire system is fabricated using wet-tapped nanosphere lithography and a single photolithography step. The patterned nanowire/nanoelectrode is inserted into live algal cells, enabling the potential harvesting of photosynthetic electrons from multiple cells simultaneously. Light-dependent extraction of electrons from cells is observed; these electrons are derived from the photosynthetic electron transport chain based on a light intensity-dependence of the reaction coupled with the finding that electron extraction is inhibited in the presence of DCMU (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea), a reagent that specifically blocks electron flow out of photosystem II. Insertion of nanoelectrodes into multiple algal cells is achieved, and sequential insertion of cells with the nanoelectrode, followed by subsequent removal of the electrode, yields a corresponding increase and then decrease in light-driven currents. Controlling the intensity of the illumination avoids nearly all photodamage and enables direct extraction of more photosynthetic electrons from multiple cells in parallel, which is sustained for an extended period of time.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
L.H.K. and Y.J.K. contributed equally to this work. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2011?0020285) as well as by the Center for Advanced Meta-Materials(CAMM) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning as Global Frontier Project (CAMM- 2014M3A6B3063716). The authors thank Prof. Yeu-Chun Kim at KAIST for providing algal cells. It was also supported by the US Department of Energy, Basic Energy Science (DE-S000160) to ARG. The authors appreciate the help of Prof. Dongil Lee at Yonsei University for advice about electrochemical analysis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics