Purpose: The aim of this study was to demonstrate OK-432 sclerotherapy efficacy for treatment of simple renal cysts. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with 25 symptomatic or large simple cysts were treated by ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous aspiration and injection of OK-432 (8 men and 12 women, mean age 63.6 years, SD 9.5). Six patients presented with flank pain, 14 presented with renal mass; renal cyst location was right, left, or bilateral sided in 9, 8, and 8 kidneys, respectively. Patients were evaluated by clinical assessment, US, or CT scan 3 months following the procedure. Complete and partial success was defined as symptom resolution with either total cyst ablation or greater than 70% reduction, respectively. Failure was defined as 30% of cyst size recurrence and/or persistent symptoms. Results: Average reduction was 93.0%. Complete and partial resolution occurred in 11 (44.0%) and 13 (52.0%) cysts, respectively. One case was defined as failure, with a 64.2% size reduction from 10.9 cm to 3.9 cm (volume reduction rate 95.4%). Renal pain improved in all patients, regardless of complete or partial resolution. Minor complications occurred in 3 patients, 2 developed leukocytosis and 1 had mild fever (< 38.5 °C) following aspiration and sclerotherapy. Successful treatment was achieved with conservative measures and NSAID therapy. Conclusion: Percutaneous treatment of simple renal cysts with OK-432 sclerotherapy was found to be a safe, effective and minimally invasive procedure.
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