This paper discusses design optimization for silicon avalanche photodetectors (APDs) fabricated in standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology in order to achieve the highest possible performance. Such factors as PN junctions, guard ring structures, active areas, and back-end structures are considered for the optimization. CMOS-APDs reflecting varying aspects of these factors are fabricated and their performances are characterized. In addition, their characteristics are analyzed with technology computer-aided-design simulations and equivalent circuit models. From these investigations, dominant factors that influence the CMOS-APD performance are identified. Furthermore, three different techniques enabling further performance improvements of CMOS-APDs are investigated, which are spatial-modulation, carrier-acceleration, and multijunction techniques. The state-of-the-art CMOS-APDs' structures and performances are presented and compared, and the best optimized CMOS-APD is proposed. These results should be extremely useful for realizing optimal silicon APDs in standard CMOS technology for various applications.
|Journal||IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics|
|Publication status||Published - 2018 Mar 1|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received May 29, 2017; revised September 12, 2017; accepted September 13, 2017. Date of publication September 20, 2017; date of current version October 19, 2017. This work was supported in part by the National Research Foundation of Korea grant funded by the Korean Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning under Grant 2015R1A2A2A01007772 and in part by the Materials and Parts Technology R&D Program funded by the Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy under Project 10065666.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering