THIS RANDOMIZED, CONTROLLED, CLINICAL STUDY was designed to evaluate outcome following surgical implantation of an allogeneic, freeze-dried, demineralized bone matrix-calcium sulfate (DBM+CS) composite with a CS barrier in intrabony periodontal defects. Twenty-six patients contributing 26 deep intrabony defects completed the study. Thirteen patients received the DBM+CS implant. Thirteen patients received gingival flap surgery alone (GFS; control). Clinical outcome was assessed at 6 and 12 months postsurgery. At 12 months postsurgery, probing depth (PD) reduction (mean ± SD) for the DBM+CS and GFS group was to 4.3 ± 0.5 and 3.0 ± 1.3 mm; clinical attachment gain was to 2.9 ± 0.8 and 1.7 ± 1.5 mm; and probing bone level gain was to 2.9 ± 1.4 and 1.2 ± 1.2 mm, respectively. There were no apparent differences between evaluations at 6 and 12 months postsurgery. Clinical improvements were significantly different from presurgery for both groups at both observation intervals (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences between groups in PD reduction and clinical attachment gain. Probing bone level gain was significantly greater in the DBM+CS group compared to controls (P < 0.05). In summary, surgical implantation of DBM+CS with a CS barrier resulted in reduced PD and improved attachment levels comparable to that achieved by gingival flap surgery alone. However, gain in probing bone levels in deep intrabony periodontal pockets assessed by clinical parameters was greater than that observed by gingival flap surgery alone. These changes were noted at both 6 and 12 months after surgery. This regenerative technique needs further biologic evaluation before being generally accepted.
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