Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (ATRH) is closely related to chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, the long-term outcomes and the effects of improvement in ATRH in patients with CKD are not well understood. We evaluated the relationship between the persistence of ATRH and the progression of CKD. This cohort study enrolled 1921 patients with CKD. ATRH was defined as blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg and intake of three different types of antihypertensive agents, including diuretics, or intake of four or more different types of antihypertensive agents, regardless of blood pressure. We defined ATRH subgroups according to the ATRH status at the index year and two years later. The prevalence of ATRH at baseline was 14.0%. The presence of ATRH at both time points was an independent risk factor for end-point renal outcome (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04–1.92; p = 0.027). On the other hand, the presence of ATRH at any one of the time points was not statistically significant. In conclusion, persistent ATRH is more important for the prognosis of renal disease than the initial ATRH status. Continuous follow-up and appropriate treatment are important to improve the renal outcomes.
|Journal||Journal of Clinical Medicine|
|Publication status||Published - 2021 Sept|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by the Research Program funded by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011E3300300, 2012E3301100, 2013E3301600, 2013E3301601, 2013E3301602, 2016E3300200, 2016E3300201, 2016E3300202, and 2019E320100) and by a grant (BCRI20062) from the Chonnam National University Hospital Biomedical Research Institute.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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