Purpose: The oral fluoropyrimidine S-1, which consists of a mixture of a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) prodrug (tegafur), a dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase inhibitor [5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyrimidine (CDHP)], and an inhibitor of orotate phosphoribosyltransferase [potassium oxonate (oxonic acid)], was developed to increase the feasibility and therapeutic index of 5-FU administered orally. The principal objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of administering S-1 on a once-daily-for-28-day schedule every 5 weeks, determine the maximum tolerated dose, characterize the pharmacokinetics of S-1, and seek evidence of anticancer activity. Experimental Design: Patients with advanced solid malignancies were treated with escalating doses of S-1 on a once-daily oral schedule for 28 days every 5 weeks. The maximum tolerated dose was defined as the highest dose in which fewer than two of the first six new patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the tegafur, CDHP, and oxonic acid constituents were characterized. Results: Twenty patients were treated with 72 courses of S-1 at three dose levels ranging from 50 to 70 mg/m2/day. Diarrhea, which was often associated with abdominal discomfort and cramping, was the principal dose-limiting toxicity of S-1 on this protracted schedule. Nausea, vomiting, mucositis, fatigue, and cutaneous effects were also observed but were rarely severe. Myelosuppression was modest and uncommon. A partial response and a 49% reduction in tumor size were observed in patients with fluoropyrhnidine- and irinotecan-resistant colorectal carcinoma. The pharmalokinetic data suggested potent inhibition of 5-FU clearance by CHDP, with resultant 5-FU exposure at least 10-fold higher than that reported from equitoxic doses of tegafur modulated by uracil in the oral fluoropyrimidine UFT. Conclusions: The recommended dose for Phase II studies of S-1 administered once daily for 28 consecutive days every 5 weeks is 50 mg/m2/day. The pharmacokinetic data indicate substantial modulation of 5-FU clearance by CDHP. Based on these pharmacokinetic data, the predictable toxicity profile of S-1, and the low incidence of severe adverse effects at the recommended Phase II dose, evaluations of S-1 on this schedule are warranted in malignancies that are sensitive to the fluoropyrimidines.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research