Phorbol ester up-regulates phospholipase D1 but not phospholipase D2 expression through a PKC/Ras/ERK/NFκB-dependent pathway and enhances matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion in colon cancer cells

Woo Kang Dong, Hee Park Mi, Jun Lee Young, Sik Kim Hyung, Kyu Kwon Taeg, Won Sang Park, Sik Min Do

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Despite its importance in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, very little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of phospholipase D (PLD) expression. PLD isozymes are significantly co-overexpressed with cancer marker genes in colorectal carcinoma. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment, as a mitogenic signal in colon cancer cells, selectively increases PLD1 expression in transcription and posttranscription. Moreover, experiments using intraperitoneal injection of PMA into mice showed selective PLD1 induction in the intestine and lung tissues, which suggests its physiological relevance in vivo. Therefore, we have undertaken a detailed analysis of the effects of PMA on the promoter activity of PLD genes. Protein kinase C inhibitors, but not a protein kinase A inhibitor, were found to suppress the up-regulation of PLD1 but not PLD2. Dominant-negative mutants of Ras, Raf, and MEK suppressed the induction and activity of PLD1. Moreover, depletion of the supposedly involved proteins reduced the endogenous PLD1 protein level. An important role for NFκB as a downstream target of ERK in PMA-induced PLD1 induction was also demonstrated using the inhibitor, small interfering RNA, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, and site-specific mutagenesis. Furthermore, inhibitors of these signaling proteins and depletion of PLD1 suppressed PMA-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion and PLD1 induction. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that induction of PLD1 through a protein kinase C/Ras/ERK/NFκB-dependent pathway is involved in the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in colorectal cancer cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4094-4104
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume283
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Feb 15

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Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
Phorbol Esters
Colonic Neoplasms
Acetates
Up-Regulation
Phospholipase D
Cells
Protein Kinase Inhibitors
Protein Kinase C
Colorectal Neoplasms
Genes
Mutagenesis
Proteins
Protein C Inhibitor
Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
Neoplasm Genes
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
Cell proliferation
Transcription
Site-Directed Mutagenesis

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

@article{4cd055da91944cc0b03e508e37f04edf,
title = "Phorbol ester up-regulates phospholipase D1 but not phospholipase D2 expression through a PKC/Ras/ERK/NFκB-dependent pathway and enhances matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion in colon cancer cells",
abstract = "Despite its importance in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, very little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of phospholipase D (PLD) expression. PLD isozymes are significantly co-overexpressed with cancer marker genes in colorectal carcinoma. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment, as a mitogenic signal in colon cancer cells, selectively increases PLD1 expression in transcription and posttranscription. Moreover, experiments using intraperitoneal injection of PMA into mice showed selective PLD1 induction in the intestine and lung tissues, which suggests its physiological relevance in vivo. Therefore, we have undertaken a detailed analysis of the effects of PMA on the promoter activity of PLD genes. Protein kinase C inhibitors, but not a protein kinase A inhibitor, were found to suppress the up-regulation of PLD1 but not PLD2. Dominant-negative mutants of Ras, Raf, and MEK suppressed the induction and activity of PLD1. Moreover, depletion of the supposedly involved proteins reduced the endogenous PLD1 protein level. An important role for NFκB as a downstream target of ERK in PMA-induced PLD1 induction was also demonstrated using the inhibitor, small interfering RNA, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, and site-specific mutagenesis. Furthermore, inhibitors of these signaling proteins and depletion of PLD1 suppressed PMA-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion and PLD1 induction. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that induction of PLD1 through a protein kinase C/Ras/ERK/NFκB-dependent pathway is involved in the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in colorectal cancer cells.",
author = "Dong, {Woo Kang} and Mi, {Hee Park} and Young, {Jun Lee} and Hyung, {Sik Kim} and Taeg, {Kyu Kwon} and Park, {Won Sang} and Do, {Sik Min}",
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Phorbol ester up-regulates phospholipase D1 but not phospholipase D2 expression through a PKC/Ras/ERK/NFκB-dependent pathway and enhances matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion in colon cancer cells. / Dong, Woo Kang; Mi, Hee Park; Young, Jun Lee; Hyung, Sik Kim; Taeg, Kyu Kwon; Park, Won Sang; Do, Sik Min.

In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 283, No. 7, 15.02.2008, p. 4094-4104.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Phorbol ester up-regulates phospholipase D1 but not phospholipase D2 expression through a PKC/Ras/ERK/NFκB-dependent pathway and enhances matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion in colon cancer cells

AU - Dong, Woo Kang

AU - Mi, Hee Park

AU - Young, Jun Lee

AU - Hyung, Sik Kim

AU - Taeg, Kyu Kwon

AU - Park, Won Sang

AU - Do, Sik Min

PY - 2008/2/15

Y1 - 2008/2/15

N2 - Despite its importance in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, very little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of phospholipase D (PLD) expression. PLD isozymes are significantly co-overexpressed with cancer marker genes in colorectal carcinoma. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment, as a mitogenic signal in colon cancer cells, selectively increases PLD1 expression in transcription and posttranscription. Moreover, experiments using intraperitoneal injection of PMA into mice showed selective PLD1 induction in the intestine and lung tissues, which suggests its physiological relevance in vivo. Therefore, we have undertaken a detailed analysis of the effects of PMA on the promoter activity of PLD genes. Protein kinase C inhibitors, but not a protein kinase A inhibitor, were found to suppress the up-regulation of PLD1 but not PLD2. Dominant-negative mutants of Ras, Raf, and MEK suppressed the induction and activity of PLD1. Moreover, depletion of the supposedly involved proteins reduced the endogenous PLD1 protein level. An important role for NFκB as a downstream target of ERK in PMA-induced PLD1 induction was also demonstrated using the inhibitor, small interfering RNA, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, and site-specific mutagenesis. Furthermore, inhibitors of these signaling proteins and depletion of PLD1 suppressed PMA-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion and PLD1 induction. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that induction of PLD1 through a protein kinase C/Ras/ERK/NFκB-dependent pathway is involved in the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in colorectal cancer cells.

AB - Despite its importance in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, very little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of phospholipase D (PLD) expression. PLD isozymes are significantly co-overexpressed with cancer marker genes in colorectal carcinoma. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment, as a mitogenic signal in colon cancer cells, selectively increases PLD1 expression in transcription and posttranscription. Moreover, experiments using intraperitoneal injection of PMA into mice showed selective PLD1 induction in the intestine and lung tissues, which suggests its physiological relevance in vivo. Therefore, we have undertaken a detailed analysis of the effects of PMA on the promoter activity of PLD genes. Protein kinase C inhibitors, but not a protein kinase A inhibitor, were found to suppress the up-regulation of PLD1 but not PLD2. Dominant-negative mutants of Ras, Raf, and MEK suppressed the induction and activity of PLD1. Moreover, depletion of the supposedly involved proteins reduced the endogenous PLD1 protein level. An important role for NFκB as a downstream target of ERK in PMA-induced PLD1 induction was also demonstrated using the inhibitor, small interfering RNA, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, and site-specific mutagenesis. Furthermore, inhibitors of these signaling proteins and depletion of PLD1 suppressed PMA-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion and PLD1 induction. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that induction of PLD1 through a protein kinase C/Ras/ERK/NFκB-dependent pathway is involved in the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in colorectal cancer cells.

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