Little is known about the effect of epigallocatechin-3 gallate (EGCG), a major constituent of green tea, on the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Here, we studied the role of phospholipase D (PLD) isozymes in EGCG-induced COX-2 expression. Stimulation of human astrocytoma cells (U87) with EGCG induced formation of phosphatidylbutanol, a specific product of PLD activity, and synthesis of COX-2 protein and its product, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Pretreatment of cells with 1-butanol, but not 3-butanol, suppressed EGCG-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 synthesis. Furthermore, evidence that PLD was involved in EGCG-induced COX-2 expression was provided by the observations that COX-2 expression was stimulated by overexpression of PLD1 or PLD2 isozymes and treatment with phosphatidic acid (PA), and that prevention of PA dephosphorylation by 1-propranolol significantly potentiated COX-2 expression induced by EGCG. EGCG induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and specific inhibition of p38 MAPK dramatically abolished EGCG-induced PLD activation, COX-2 expression, and PGE2 formation. Moreover, protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition suppressed EGCG-induced p38 MAPK activation, COX-2 expression, and PGE2 accumulation. The same pathways as those obtained in the astrocytoma cells were active in primary rat astrocytes, suggesting the relevance of the findings. Collectively, our results demonstrate for the first time that PLD isozymes mediate EGCG-induced COX-2 expression through PKC and p38 in immortalized astroglial line and normal astrocyte cells.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology