Caveolae are small plasma membrane invaginations that have been implicated in cell signaling, and caveolin is a principal structural component of the caveolar membrane. Previously we have demonstrated that protein kinase Cα (PKCα) directly interacts with phospholipase D1 (PLD1), activating the enzymatic activity of PLD1 in the presence of phorbol 12- myristate 13-acetate (PMA) [Lee, T. G., et al. (1997) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1347, 199-204]. In this study, using a detergent-free procedure for the purification of a caveolin-enriched membrane fraction (CEM) and immunoblot analysis, we show that PLD1 is enriched in the CEMs of 3Y1 rat fibroblasts. Purified PLD1 directly bound to a glutathione S-transferase-caveolin-1 fusion protein in in vitro binding assays. The association of PLD1 with caveolin-1 could be completely eliminated by preincubation of PLD1 with an oligopeptide corresponding to the scaffolding domain (amino acids 82-101) of caveolin-1, indicating that caveolin-1 interacts with PLD1 through the scaffolding domain. The peptide also inhibited PKCα-stimulated PLD1 activity and the interaction between PLD1 and PKCα with an IC50 of 0.5 μM. PMA elicits translocation of PKCα to the CEMs, inducing PLD activation through the interaction of PKCα with PLD1 in the CEMs. Caveolin-1 also coimmunoprecipitated with PLD1 in the absence of PMA, and the amounts of coimmunoprecipitated caveolin-1 decreased in response to treatment with PMA. Taken together, our results suggest a new mechanism for the regulation of the PKCα-dependent PLD activity through the molecular interaction between PLD1, PKCα, and caveolin-1 in caveolae.
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