Harvesting solar energy in the form of electricity from the photosynthesis of plants, algal cells, and bacteria has been researched as the most environment-friendly renewable energy technology in the last decade. The primary challenge has been the engineering of electrochemical interfacing with photosynthetic apparatuses, organelles, or whole cells. However, with the aid of low-dimensional nanomaterials, there have been many advances, including enhanced photon absorption, increased generation of photosynthetic electrons (PEs), and more efficient transfer of PEs to electrodes. These advances have demonstrated the possibility for the technology to advance to a new level. In this article, the fundamentals of photosynthesis are introduced. How PE harvesting systems have improved concerning solar energy absorption, PE production, and PE collection by electrodes is discussed. The review focuses on how different kinds of nanomaterials are applied and function in interfacing with photosynthetic materials for enhanced PE harvesting. Finally, the review analyzes how the performance of PE harvesting and stand-alone systems have evolved so far and its future prospects.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Y.J.K. and H.H. contributed equally to this work. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea Government (MSIT) (No. 2020R1A2C3013158, No. 2015R1A5A1037668), and by Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government (MOTIE)(No. 20193310100030, Development of high efficient F‐class gas turbine hot component by controlling and applying Design for Additive Manufacturing).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering