Plasmid-encoded AmpC β-lactamases: How far have we gone 10 years after the discovery?

Adolf Bauernfeind, Yunsop Chong, Kyungwon Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

86 Citations (Scopus)


The dogma that ampC genes are located exclusively on the chromosome was dominant until about 10 years ago. Since 1989 over 15 different plasmid- encoded AmpC β-lactamases have been reported from several countries. Most of these enzymes evolved in two clusters. The major cluster includes several enzymes with a high similarity to CMY-2, which is the closest related chromosomal AmpC enzyme of Citrobacter freundii. A second cluster centers around CMY-1. It is less homogeneous and not closely related chromosomal AmpC enzymes. Molecular diversification by amino acid substitutions does not usually translate into a change in the resistance phenotype. At this time, CMY-2 appears to be the most prevalent and widely distributed. Further global increase of prevalence and diversity of plasmidic AmpC β-lactamases have to be anticipated in the next millenium.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)520-525
Number of pages6
JournalYonsei medical journal
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1998

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)

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