Objective: Remodeling of alveolar bone is controlled by osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-induced bone formation. LPS of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major causative agent of periodontitis, produces proinflammatory cytokines in host immune cells, which thereby triggers osteoclastogenesis and leads to alveolar bone resorption. We investigated the anti-periodontitis potential of Platycarya strobilacea leaf extract (PLE), which is used as a traditional medicine in Asian countries. Design: TNF-α levels in cell culture media were measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Osteoclast differentiation was observed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, and the expression levels of osteoclastogenic genes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Bone-resorbing activity was confirmed by the resorption pit formation, gelatin zymographic, and the cathepsin K activity assays. Osteogenic differentiation was confirmed with an ALP activity assay and alizarin red S staining. Results: PLE treatment inhibited the production of TNF-α in P. gingivalis LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. In bone marrow-derived macrophages serving as osteoclast precursors, PLE treatment blocked RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and gene expression levels of the osteoclastogenic transcription factor NFATc1, DC-STAMP for osteoclast fusion, and cathepsin K for osteoclast activity. In addition, PLE treatment reduced the formation of resorption pits and the secretion of MMP 9 and cathepsin K from the differentiated osteoclasts. Furthermore, PLE treatment induced osteogenesis by increasing ALP activity and calcium content in preosteoblastic cells. Conclusion: PLE inhibits P. gingivalis LPS-induced TNF-α production and bone resorption and induces bone formation. PLE may be a beneficial agent to promote oral health by inhibiting periodontitis-induced alveolar bone loss.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (IPET) through High Value-added Food Technology Development Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) ( 316054-03 ).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cell Biology