The aim of this study was to evaluate the polymerization behavior and depth of cure (DOC) of recently introduced resin composites for posterior use: highly filled flowable composite and composites for bulk fill. A highly filled flowable (G- Aenial Universal Flo [GUF]), two bulk-fill flowables (Surefil SDR Flow [SDR] and Venus Bulk fill [VBF]), and a bulkfill nonflowable composite (Tetric N-Ceram Bulk fill [TBF]) were compared with two conventional composites (Tetric Flow [TF], Filtek Supreme Ultra [FS]). Linear polymerization shrinkage and polymerization shrinkage stress were each measured with custom-made devices. To evaluate DOC, the composite specimen was prepared using a mold with a hole of 4 mm depth and 4 mm internal diameter. The hole was bulk filled with each of the six composites and light cured for 20 seconds, followed by 24 hours of water storage. The surface hardness was measured on the top and the bottom using a Vickers microhardness (HV) indenter. The linear polymerization shrinkage of the composite specimens after photo-initiation decreased in the following order: TF and GUF . VBF . SDR . FS and TBF (p,0.05). The polymerization shrinkage stress of the six composite groups decreased in the following order: GUF . TF and VBF . SDR . FS and TBF (p,0.05). The mean bottom surface HV of SDR and VBF exceeded 80% of the top surface HV (HV-80%). However, the bottom of GUF and TBF failed to reach HV80%. A highly filled flowable (GUF) revealed limitations in polymerization shrinkage and DOC. Bulk-fill flowables (SDR and VBF) were properly cured in 4-mm bulk, but they shrank more than the conventional nonflowable composite. A bulk-fill nonflowable (TBF) showed comparable shrinkage to the conventional nonflowable composite, but it was not sufficiently cured in the 4-mm bulk.
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