Objectives: Although the direct cause for periodontitis is oral bacterial infection, its progression depends upon genetic and environmental factors. Smoking, one of the environmental factors, is a risk factor for the development and severity of periodontitis. Therefore, individual susceptibility to periodontitis may be influenced by the polymorphisms of genes coding for enzymes metabolizing tobacco-derived substances. The object of this study is to investigate roles of genetic polymorphisms of these metabolizing enzymes in the risk for periodontitis. Material and Methods: We investigated three important enzymes: cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP2E1 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, involved in the metabolic activation and detoxification of tobacco-derived substances. The prevalence of the polymorphisms of these genes was examined in 115 patients with periodontitis as well as in 126 control subjects. Results: Significantly increased risk for periodontitis was observed for subjects with the polymorphic CYP1A1 m2 allele (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-4.4). A significant risk increase for periodontitis associated with the GSTM1 allele was observed (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6). However, no association was observed between the CYP2E1 Pst1 polymorphism and risk for periodontitis (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.6-2.5). Conclusion: These results suggest that the GSTM1 and CYP1A1 polymorphisms may play an important role in risk for periodontitis.
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