Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an attractive chemical because of its bleaching properties in paper and pulp industry and as a disinfectant in the food, water, and medical industries. However, it is important to monitor the residual H2O2 level after its usage and prevent any unintended health problems or chemical reactions. Most H2O2 sensors often utilize fluorophores or electrical circuitry that requires an additional irradiation or a digital display. To this end, this study presents a 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)/horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-loaded patch that alerts the presence of high H2O2 levels by generating a visible blue color. We hypothesized that water-insoluble TMB immobilized within mesoporous silica particles of proper pore diameter and structure would act as a colorimetric indicator through the H2O2-mediated oxidation within a cross-linked patch. We examined this hypothesis by immobilizing TMB molecules in mesoporous silica particles with 2 and 7 nm diameter cylindrical pores as well as on nonporous silica particles. Then, we loaded these TMB-silica particles and HRP in a porous alginate patch via sequential in situ cross-linking reaction and lyophilization. In the presence of 25-5000 μM H2O2, which simulate H2O2 concentrations found in residual disinfecting fluids, the patch loaded with TMB-mesoporous silica particles with 7 nm diameter pores generated a distinct blue color with varying intensities depending on the H2O2 concentration. The design principles demonstrated in this study should be applicable to a broad array of sensors to be integrated into a moldable, three-dimensional matrix.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Electron microscopy was carried out in part in the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory Central Facilities, University of Illinois. This work was supported by Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (JE140004) and partly by the National Institutes of Health (1R01 HL109192). J.L. gratefully acknowledges the A*STAR Graduate Scholarship (Overseas) from Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore. Y.Y.Y. is grateful to the support from the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, A*STAR, Singapore.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces and Interfaces