Summary: Posterior nutcracker syndrome (PNCS) is the entrapment of the left renal vein between the aorta and the vertebral column. Although uncommon, it is still an important diagnosis due to the high morbidity associated with the risk of secondary anaemia from haematuria, from long-term left renal vein hypertension, vascular thrombosis, and even blood clots in the urinary system. A literature search of PubMed and EMBASE databases was performed and 27 publications containing 27 cases were included for the final analysis. The following frequency of clinical signs and symptoms was noted: twenty-five patients had haematuria, 13 patients had flank pain, and two had hypertension. Overall, male-female distribution was balanced and there were more adult than paediatric (age < 18 years) patients. All symptoms of patients with conservative treatment were either well-controlled or under spontaneous resolution. Conservative management instead of surgical treatment should be preferred in most cases. Taken together, despite the low incidence of PNCS, its recognition and management are highly important. This systematic study explores the evidence base for conservative and medical options.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2017 Hogrefe.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine