Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and a serious health burden worldwide which increases risk of cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular complications. Current epidemics of obesity, unhealthy dietary patterns, and sedentary lifestyles, all contribute to the high prevalence of NAFLD. Dietary patterns and nutrients are important contributors to the development, progression, and treatment of NAFLD. A healthy diet is beneficial for all NAFLD patients beyond weight reduction. Generally, hypercaloric diets, especially rich in trans/saturated fat and cholesterol, high consumption of red and processed meat, and fructose-sweetened beverages seem to increase the risk of progression toward nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), whereas reducing caloric intake and high-glycemic index (GI) foods, increasing consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, fibers, and specific protein sources such as fish and poultry have preventive and therapeutic effects. Therefore, nutrition serves as a major route of prevention and treatment of NAFLD, and patients with NAFLD should have an individualized diet recommendation. In this review, the evidence linking macronutrients to NAFLD are discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Complementary and alternative medicine