Aim The objective of study was to determine the osteogenic potential of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) loaded onto a particulate porcine bone mineral (PBM) biomaterial using a sinus augmentation model. Methods Release kinetics of BMP-2/PBM was determined in vitro. Eight rabbits received BMP-2/PBM or PBM alone into contra-lateral sinus sites. The animals were killed following a 2-week healing interval for micro-CT and histometrical analysis. Results Approximately 40% of the BMP-2 was released from PBM over the first 3 days in vitro; release maintained at a reduced level through day 21. In vivo, total augmented implant volume did not differ significantly between treatments. However, local bone formation was enhanced in the BMP-2/PBM group compared with PBM control (10.5% versus 6.6%; p = 0.03), specifically in the central aspect of the PBM implant (14.2% versus 5.5%; p < 0.01) and adjoining the Schneiderian membrane (11.9% versus 5.0%; p < 0.05). There were no significant overall differences in residual biomaterial and fibrovascular tissue. Conclusion Bone morphogenetic protein-2 enhanced local bone formation in the rabbit maxillary sinus model following implantation using a PBM carrier.
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