Objective: Cytomegaloviruses (CMV) can have a significant impact on the prognosis of immunocompromised patients. Unlike in the transplantation and AIDS fields, only a few studies on CMV infections have been published in the field of autoimmunity. In this study, we examined the clinical outcomes of CMV infections in patients with autoimmune diseases at a single tertiary medical institution. Methods: A retrospective study was performed to identify the mortality risk factors associated with CMV infections in patients with autoimmune diseases. We reviewed the medical records of patients with autoimmune diseases who were diagnosed with CMV infections using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction between December 2005 and March 2016. Clinical and laboratory parameters as well as treatment outcomes were analyzed. Results: Seventy-three CMV infected patients were separated into survivors and non-survivors. Non-survivors had significantly higher median CMV-DNA copy numbers than survivors (95,500 vs 6,700 copies/mL, p = 0.005) and demonstrated significantly more frequent incidents of CMV pneumonitis (69.2 vs 36.2%, p = 0.007). After adjusting for multiple confounding covariates, the log CMV-DNA copies/mL (hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.14–1.92; p = 0.003) and the presence of concurrent infections (hazard ratio, 22.00; 95% confidence interval, 2.75–175.97, p = 0.004) were identified as independent mortality risk factors. Furthermore, patients with high CMV copy numbers (> 60,000 copies/mL) had higher in-hospital mortality than those with low CMV copy numbers (p < 0.05). Conclusions: CMV-DNA copy numbers and concurrent infections are predictors of in-hospital mortality in CMV-infected patients with autoimmune diseases. Therefore, serial measurements of CMV-DNA copy numbers and close observation for signs of other infections are recommended for patients with autoimmune diseases who have concurrent CMV infection.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program (2015R1C1A1A01053140) through the National Research Foundation of Korea, and funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology. There are no conflicts of interest to declare and the funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The authors thank Juyoung Yoo for her help in data collection and analysis.
© 2017 Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)