The present study demonstrated a noninvasive preocular sensor system for the concurrent monitoring of diabetes and one of its prevalent complications, dry eye syndrome (DES), using tear fluids. Two distinct sensors, i.e., the glucose and DES sensors, were prepared and encased together in a single housing unit to produce the sensor system, and the tip was designed to be in contact with the eye surface noninvasively to collect and deliver tear fluid to the sensors. The glucose sensor was modified from a commercially available electrochemical sensor to allow for the measurement of glucose concentrations, even in a small amount of collected tear fluid. The DES sensor was equipped with a microchannel spaced with two parallel electrodes to determine the amount of collected tear fluid. In vivo experimental results revealed that with the collected tear fluid of about 0.6-1.0 μl, the sensor system estimated the blood glucose concentrations with acceptable accuracy compared with that of the glucometer in clinical use. The DES condition in animals was diagnosed with high sensitivity (91.7%) and specificity (83.3%).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)