Purpose: To identify potential predictive factors of incidental prostate cancer (IPca) in patients considering tissue-ablation treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods: From the 11 centers, 1,613 men who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or open prostatectomy were included. Before surgery, prostate biopsy was performed in all patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥4.0 ng/ml or with abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) findings. The patients with prostate cancer preoperatively or with PSA >20 ng/ml were excluded. As predictive factors of IPca, age, body mass index, PSA, DRE, and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) findings, including total prostate volume (TPV), transition zone volume (TZV), and the presence of hypoechoic lesions, were reviewed. PSA density (PSAD) and PSAD in the transition zone (PSAD-TZV) were calculated. Results: IPca was diagnosed in 78 patients (4.8%). DRE findings, PSA, and TZV were independent predictive factors in the multivariate analysis. In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of PSA, PSAD, and PSAD-TZV, the area under the curve (AUC) was the largest for PSAD-TZV (AUC, 0.685). Conclusions: IPca was detected in 4.8% of the population studied. In addition to DRE findings, the combination of TZV and PSA can be useful predictive factors of IPca in patients considering tissue-ablation treatment as well as TURP.
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