The biological behavior of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is heterogeneous and differs from that of cholangiocarcinoma, which is the most common malignant tumor of the biliary tree. However, the preoperative diagnosis of NET in the biliary tree is extremely difficult and to our knowledge, diagnosis by brush cytology has not previously been reported. Herein, we first reported a case of biliary NET preoperatively diagnosed by brush cytology in a 33-year-old female patient. Imaging study revealed a 2.6-cm mass in the common hepatic duct. The brush cytology was characterized by loosely cohesive plasmacytoid tumor cells and scattered clusters of thin vascular septa. The tumor cells showed abundant cytoplasm and severe nuclear size variation but mitosis was not observed. Immunohistochemical staining of the cell block (CB) showed strong positivity for both synaptophysin and chromogranin A and a Ki-67 labeling index of 3.5%. The surgically resected bile duct mass was pathologically confirmed as NET, G2 with lymphovascular and perineural invasion of the tumor cells. The patient showed no evidence of tumor recurrence 10 months after operation without adjuvant chemotherapy. Suspicion of this rare tumor and immunohistochemical staining of the CB are important for the preoperative diagnosis of NET in the biliary tree.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine