Purpose: To evaluate the clinical utility of percentage of serum prostate-specific antigen (proPSA) to free PSA (%p2PSA) and the prostate health index (PHI) for predicting aggressive pathological outcomes of radical prostatectomy (RP) in Korean males. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational multicenter study included 160 Korean males who consecutively underwent RP. The predictive utility of preoperative %p2PSA and PHI for predicting the following pathological outcomes of RP including pT3 disease, pathologic Gleason sum ≥7, and Gleason sum upgrading was investigated using multivariate and decision-curve analyses. Results: The PHI and %p2PSA levels were significantly higher in patients with pT3 disease, pathologic Gleason sum ≥7, and Gleason sum upgrading. On univariate analysis, PHI was an accurate predictor of pT3 disease, pathologic Gleason sum ≥7, and Gleason sum upgrading. Multivariate and decision curve analyses revealed that inclusion of PHI to a base multivariate model including total PSA, percentage free PSA, PSA density, percentage of positive biopsy core, biopsy Gleason sum, and clinical stage factors significantly increased its predictive accuracy; %p2PSA showed a similar result. However, PHI was a more valuable predictor of pathological outcomes of RP. Conclusions: This study revealed PHI and %p2PSA as preoperative biomarkers of pathological outcomes in Korean males who underwent RP for prostate cancer.
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